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Posts Tagged: sorghum

UC research could help farmers face droughts worldwide

Sorghum is not only a potential drought-tolerant crop for the San Joaquin Valley, it also presents the opportunity for scientists to understand the mechanism behind drought tolerance at the genetic level, said UCCE sorghum specialist Jeff Dahlberg in a segment on ABC 30 Action News.

Reporter Cristina Davies spent an hour and a half at the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Parlier during the sorghum harvest to learn about the potential of sorghum research. 

"If we can elucidate the genetics behind (drought tolerance), what we believe is we can use those genetics to see if the genetics are available in corn, or in rice, or in wheat," Dahlberg said. "I think the genes may be there. We just don't have the tools yet to search for the genes in those crops."

Conducting drought-tolerance research in California is ideal because the summer is typically devoid of rain. Researchers can control exactly how much water is applied to each sorghum plot. The research has revealed more than 100 genetic markers that may confer drought tolerance.

"We've been really thrilled with the data that's been coming out of this. Like most research, we are learning so many things we don't understand," Dahlberg said.

The research is being conducted in collaboration with the USDA's Agricultural Research Service research center, which is across the street from Kearney. USDA research scientist Devin Coleman-Derr was present for the sorghum harvest.

"Like humans take probiotics, there may be a use for microbes in sort of promoting better and better yields in the field," Coleman-Derr said. 

The 330-acre UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center is the University of California's largest off-campus agricultural research facility.

UCCE specialist Jeff Dahlberg studies sorghum at the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Parlier.
UCCE specialist Jeff Dahlberg studies sorghum at the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Parlier.

Posted on Thursday, September 19, 2019 at 9:43 AM
Focus Area Tags: Agriculture Natural Resources

Microbes associated with plant roots could be a key to helping plants survive drought

As sorghum plants cope with drought conditions, the plants' roots and adjoining microbial communities are communicating in a chemical language that appears to improve the plants' chances under water stress.

“It's amazing,” said Peggy Lemaux, UC Cooperative Extension specialist. “We know there are lots of microbes in the soil and, for the most part, ones in the surrounding soil stayed the same under drought conditions. We only saw changes in those microbes closely associated with the roots.”

The role of drought in restructuring the root microbiome was the first published discovery to come out of a sweeping drought research project underway since 2015 in the fields at UC Kearney Research and Extension Center in Parlier. The five-year study, funded with a $12.3 million grant from the Department of Energy, aims to tease out the genetics of drought tolerance in sorghum and its associated microbes. Using sorghum as a model, scientists hope the research will help them understand and improve drought tolerance in other crops as well. 

Sorghum growing in research plots at the UC Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center. (Photo: Peggy Lemaux)

The new research results from the lab of USDA's Devin Coleman-Derr at UC Berkeley, published April 16, 2018, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, document the fate of microbes associated with sorghum roots under three distinct irrigation regimens. Because the San Joaquin Valley generally sees no rain during the growing season, it is the ideal place to mimic drought conditions by withholding irrigation water.

All plots received a pre-plant irrigation to initiate growth. In the control plots, sorghum was irrigated normally, with weekly watering through the season. In the plot simulating pre-flowering drought stress, the plants received no additional water until flowering, about halfway through the season. The third treatment was watered normally until it flowered, and then water was cut off for the rest of the season.

Beginning when the plants emerged, the scientists collected samples from each plot on the same day and time each week for 17 weeks. In a mini, in-field laboratory, roots, rhizosphere (zone surrounding the root), leaves and soil samples from 10 plants in each plot were immediately frozen and transported to Berkeley, where they were disseminated to collaborators, who investigated the plant and microbial responses at the molecular level.

“When a sorghum plant is subjected to drought, it starts sloughing off metabolites, nutrients and amino acids from the roots. The compounds appear to communicate to the neighboring microbial community that the plant is under stress,” Lemaux said. “That selects out a certain population of microbes. Certain types of microbes increase, others go away. When you add water back, the microbial community returns to its pre-drought population in just a few days.”

The researchers cultured two specific microbes that were enriched in the rootzone under drought conditions. They coated sorghum seeds with the microbes and planted them under drought conditions in a growth chamber. This treatment encouraged the plant to grow more roots.

“The microbes appear to improve plant growth during drought,” Lemaux said. “Those microbes appear to be helping plants survive drought. We didn't know that was happening before we got these results.”

Lemaux said the research might lead to future field use of the research breakthrough.

“A lot of companies are interested in the microbiome,” she said. “Some are already selling microbes to coat seeds.”

Posted on Wednesday, April 25, 2018 at 8:44 AM
Tags: drought (162), Kearney (4), Peggy Lemaux (7), sorghum (10)
Focus Area Tags: Agriculture

2017 Kearney Alfalfa and Forage Field Day Presentations Now Available On-Line

As the alfalfa hay harvest season wraps up and we get in gear to attend the November 2017 Western Alfalfa and Forage Symposium in Reno, NV, we're...

Posted on Tuesday, October 24, 2017 at 8:00 AM
Tags: Alfalfa (51), Corn (7), Fertility (2), forage (6), IPM (38), Irrigation (22), Sorghum (10)

Be on the lookout for sugarcane aphid this summer

Figure 1

Last year many forage sorghum fields were heavily infested and damaged by Sugarcane Aphid (SCA) (Figure 1) – Melanaphis sacchari –...

Posted on Friday, July 7, 2017 at 3:01 PM
Tags: IPM (38), Pest Mangement (1), Sorghum (10), Sugarcane Aphid (1)

Flea beetles - A nuisance in early-planted, San Joaquin Valley small grains

Flea beetle on wheat seedling

PCA's and field scouts, be on the lookout with your hand lenses this late fall for flea beetles in recently emerged small grains that are planted...

Adult Pale-striped Flea Beetle
Adult Pale-striped Flea Beetle

Close-up of adult Pale-striped flea beetle

Flea beetle enlarged femur
Flea beetle enlarged femur

View of enlarged femur of adult flea beetle

Flea beetle on wheat seedling
Flea beetle on wheat seedling

Adult flea beetle on wheat seedling leaf and associated feeding damage.

Flea beetle feeding damage to edge of wheat field
Flea beetle feeding damage to edge of wheat field

Stand loss at edge of recently emerged wheat field from flea beetle feeding

Early flea beetle feeding damage on wheat seedlings
Early flea beetle feeding damage on wheat seedlings

Early damaged wheat seedlings from flea beetle feeding

Later flea beetle feeding damage on wheat seedlings
Later flea beetle feeding damage on wheat seedlings

Later damaged wheat seedlings from flea beetle feeding

Posted on Thursday, November 3, 2016 at 6:00 AM
Tags: flea beetle (2), forage (6), IPM (38), sorghum (10), wheat (5)

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