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Posts Tagged: climate change

Reduce food waste to combat world hunger and slow global climate change

One-third of the world's food is spoiled or tossed rather than eaten, a fact that is tragic when nearly one billion people go hungry. The injustice of food waste is worsened by the fact that food decomposing in landfills emits greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

The conventional management of municipal waste in landfills places discarded food and plant matter into an anaerobic environment, initiating a chemical reaction that turns biomass into biogas – specifically methane, a greenhouse gas that's 28 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

The UC Cooperative Extension Compost Education Program facility at Martial Cottle Park in San Jose.

Reducing the volume of the California waste stream and reducing the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are objectives that have spurred state lawmakers to enact regulations, such as Assembly Bill 939, which in 1985 mandated a 50 percent diversion of solid waste away from landfills. A 1989 update to the law also required municipalities to reach out to residents with training on greenwaste etiquette and waste diversion.

UC Cooperative Extension is working closely with the cities and county of Santa Clara in a far-reaching program to divert organic matter – food and green waste – from landfills by composting and using the product to enrich soil in the home garden.

UC Master Composter Don Krafft, right, presents information on composting during the class in Palo Alto.

In early June, UC Master Composter Don Krafft conducted a class on composting in a Palo Alto community center, one of 22 sessions to be offered in the spring and summer of 2018. A retired telecommunications professional, Krafft's interest in composting stemmed from his work as a Master Gardener for UC Cooperative Extension.

“I live in a townhouse, so I do worm composting. The No. 1 reason,” Krafft said, “is because it's fun.”

The composting workshops are just one component of the UC Cooperative Extension's composting efforts in Santa Clara County, led by UCCE staff research associate Cole Smith. The Environmental Protection Agency has a food recovery hierarchy, he said, which has source reduction at the top, followed by feeding the hungry, feeding animals, industrial uses, then composting, and finally delivery to a landfill.

“By diverting and recycling at the source, we reduce the diesel footprint for hauling,” Smith said. “We want to tighten the nutrient loop and the backyard is the closest place.”

Coordinator of the UCCE composting program in Santa Clara County, Cole Smith, stands with a bicycle-powered compost turning tool at the demonstration site.

The classic composting technique involves layering “browns” – dry leaves, sawdust, woody cuttings, straw, shredded newspaper and cardboard – with “greens” – grass clippings, food scraps, coffee grounds, egg shells, green plant cuttings and manure.

“Start and end with browns to keep the fruit flies down,” Krafft said. “It's like making lasagna.”

Certain foods should not be added to the home compost heap – including meat, whole eggs and dairy products.

The mix of greens and browns should be maintained evenly moist, but not soaked, and turned at regular intervals, the more often, the faster the materials decompose.

“Maintenance is completely adaptable. You can do a lot or a little and it gets easier with time,” Krafft assured the audience.

The compost is ready when the components are no longer recognizable and the pile is cold. Once composted, the former waste becomes a stable soil amendment with a pleasant earthy smell. It's then ready to be applied in the garden.

Compost bins at the UC Compost Education Program demonstration site.

UCCE Santa Clara has also developed a three-acre composting demonstration site at Martial Cottle Park in San Jose, where volunteers are composting animal waste generated by the 4-H animal program in a project made possible by a grant from the Santa Clara Valley Water District.

The facility includes a variety of commercial and homemade compost containers, including one built by a volunteer that employs bicycle power to mix compost.

The issue of food waste is capturing significant attention not only in Santa Clara County and not only in the garden. Food waste reaches across multiple disciplines, including agriculture, environment, and public health, key areas of UC Agriculture and Natural Resources' efforts.

“Food waste is a symptom of our food systems and food practices going astray,” said Wendi Gosliner, a project scientist in the UC ANR Nutrition Policy Institute, co-founder of California Food Waste Prevention Week, which was held for the first time in March 2018.

“Addressing the issue requires researchers, practitioners, policy makers, communities and individuals to innovate and develop new solutions,” Gosliner said.

UC ANR programs that have a hand in food waste prevention include:

“UC ANR translates research to practice in helping communities manage food resources, learn to preserve food and compost – all parts of the food waste solution,” Gosliner said. “Thinking about these and other UC ANR activities under the umbrella of food waste prevention can help to better nourish people, protect the environment and conserve human, natural and financial resources.

A commercial home compost bin, left, and a bin improvised by cutting holes and the bottom out of an ordinary plastic trash can.
Posted on Wednesday, June 13, 2018 at 8:34 AM
Focus Area Tags: Environment Food

What Effect Did the California Drought Have on Butterflies?

Art Shapiro, UC Davis distinguished professor of evolution and ecology, counting butterflies in Gates Canyon, Vacaville, on Jan. 26, 2014. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Remember the California drought of 2011 to 2015? What effect did that have on butterflies? Newly published research examining more than four decades...

Is climate change chasing away 'June Gloom'?

Low-lying morning clouds in Southern California coastal areas form the predictable "June Gloom" in early summer - at least, they used to. The combination of urbanization and a warming climate are driving up summer temperatures, reducing cloud cover and increasing the risk of bigger and more intense wildfires, reported Julie Cohen of UC Santa Barbara's The Current.

UC Cooperative Extension specialist Max Moritz, UC Santa Barbara geography professor Dar Roberts and colleagues published the study results in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

The scientists compared hourly cloud observations recorded by Southern California airports since the 1970s with a large database of vegetation moisture levels in the hills outside of Los Angeles. They found that periods of less cloud cover during the summer correlated with lower vegetation moisture and increased fire danger. 

“Because fires can already be very difficult to control in these areas, a reduction in cloud cover and its effects on fuel moisture is likely to increase fire activity overall,” Moritz said. “In areas where clouds have decreased, fires could get larger and harder to contain.”

Conditions vary year to year, but Moritz said he expects fire danger to increase in California as climate change accelerates.

Early summer cloud cover at Seal Beach in June 2013. (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)
 
Lead author of the research is A. Park Williams. In addition to Moritz and Roberts, Pierre Gentine and John T. Abatzoglou are co-authors.
 
 
Posted on Thursday, May 31, 2018 at 3:17 PM
Tags: climate change (72), Max Moritz (7)
Focus Area Tags: Natural Resources

UC study seeks street trees that can cope with climate change

The changing climate predicted for California – including less rain and higher day and nighttime temperatures – is expected to cause chronic stress on many street tree species that have shaded and beautified urban areas for decades.

Realizing that popular trees may not thrive under the changing conditions, UC Cooperative Extension scientists are partnering with the U.S. Forest Service in an unprecedented 20-year research study to expand the palette of drought-adapted, climate-ready trees for several of the state's climate zones.

“The idea is to look at available but under-planted, drought-tolerant, structurally sound, pest resistant trees for Southern California that do well in even warmer climates,” said Janet Hartin, UCCE horticulture advisor in San Bernardino County.

Hartin, a 34-year veteran advisor, said the project is her first to stretch to 20 years; it will likely extend past her tenure with UCCE.

“I'd like to retire in five or six years,” she said. “But I'm very excited about being a pioneer in a study that will continue with my successors. I think it's important for our children and our children's children, as well as for the environment.”

At the end of 2019, with three years of data on tree health and growth rates, the scientists expect to be able to publish the first results and make them available to arborists, urban foresters and residents throughout the regions of the study.

Twelve tree species were selected for each climate zone in the comparative study, with several area parks used as control sites. Hartin and her Southern California research collaborators – UCCE advisors  Darren Haver of Orange County and Jim Downer of Ventura County – worked closely with UC Davis plant biologist Alison Berry, UC Davis research associate Greg McPherson and USFS research urban ecologist Natalie van Doorn to select promising species.

They looked for trees that are already available at local nurseries, but are underutilized. The trees in the project exhibit drought tolerance and disease resistance, plus produce minimal litter. The researchers also sought trees that would provide ample cooling shade for a long time – ideally 50 years or longer.

The varieties come from areas around the world with climates similar to California. Two trees planted in replicated plots at the UC Riverside Citrus Field Station are native to Australia, two are native to Oklahoma and Texas, one is native to Asia and two are non-native crosses of other trees. Three of the trees are native to California: the netleaf hackberry, Catalina cherry and island oak.

“Trees are a long-term investment,” Hartin said. “A tree will live 50, 70, 90 years. The proper selection is very important to help ensure longevity.”

Making the long-term investment with the proper selection yields considerable returns. In a warming world, trees are natural air conditioners.

“Urban areas create heat islands, with dark asphalt surfaces reradiating heat. Cities can be 10 to 20 degrees warmer than the surrounding environment,” Hartin said.

Other tree benefits include soil health and stability, wildlife habitat and aesthetic beauty.

Following are a sampling of trees that are part of the comparative study:

Acacia – A 20-foot-tall, 20-foot wide evergreen that is drought resistant, and withstands moderate irrigation.  Native of Australia.

Palo verde is a drought-resistant tree. (Photo: Bri Weldon, flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0)
Blue palo verde – A tree that reaches about 25 feet in height, the Blue palo verde is drought resistance and lives 50 to 150 years. Its trunk, branches and leaves have a blue-green hue. Native to the southwestern U.S. and Mexico.

Brazilian cedarwood – A native of Brazil and Paraguay, the deciduous tree grows to 50 to 65 feet. The tree produces pale yellow tubular flowers in the spring.

Catalina cherry – Native to the chaparral areas of coastal California, the Catalina cherry grows to 30 feet high. The evergreen tree tolerates drought when mature. It produces sweet purple-to-black edible fruit.

Chinese pistache – A deciduous tree with beautiful fall color. Grows to 35 feet tall, 30 feet wide. Drought resistant, but tolerates moist soil. Native to central and western China.

Desert willow – Growing to 30 feet tall and living 40 to 150 years, the desert willow tolerates highly alkaline soil and some salinity. A deciduous tree, it boasts large pink flowers all summer that attract hummingbirds and other wildlife. Native to the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico.

Escarpment live oak – Native to west Texas, this tree is cold hardy and drought tolerant. Typically evergreen, it can be deciduous in colder climates.

Ghost gum – Very tall at maturity and drought tolerant. An Australia native.

Indian laurel – Commonly called a ficus, this is a 35-foot-tall, 35-foot-wide tree at maturity that is drought resistant and tolerates highly alkaline and saline soils. Shade potential is high. Native of Asia and Hawaii.

Ironwood – A southwestern and northern Mexico native, Ironwood is semi-drought resistant once mature and tolerates alkaline soil. Ironwood, which grows to about 33 feet tall, can live 50 to 150 years.

Island oak – This tree is native to five of six California off-shore islands. Drought tolerant, it grows to nearly 70 feet tall when mature.

Maverick mesquite – Native to the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico, this tree does well in full sun and is drought resistant once established. The tree grows to 35 feet tall. The Maverick mesquite is a thornless variety.

Mulga – A versatile and hardy tree that grows 15 to 20 feet in height, the mulga – a Western Australia native – tolerates hot and dry conditions. The leaves are evergreen and the tree has yellow elongated fluffy flowers in spring.

Netleaf hackberry – A California native, the netleaf hackberry grows to 30 feet. Its deep root systems and heat resistance makes the tree idea for urban conditions.

Climate-ready trees planted in 2016 at the UC South Coast Research and Extension Center.

Rosewood – Native to southern Iran, Indian rosewood grows to 65 feet tall, and 40 feet wide. Evergreen. Semi drought resistant and intolerant of alkaline soil.

Shoestring Acacia – Evergreen and 30 feet tall when mature, shoestring acacia is drought resistant and thrives in slightly acidic to highly alkaline soils. Native to Australia.

Tecate cypress – A native of Southern California and Mexico, the Tecate cypress is very drought tolerant. Its foliage is bright green. Young trees are pyramidal in shape, becoming more rounded or contorted with age.

Partners in the tree study are Los Angeles Beautification Team volunteers, LA Parks and Recreation team, Chino Basin Water Conservation District, and Mountain States Wholesale Nursery.

Funding and other support is provided by LA Center for Urban Natural Resources Sustainability, ISA Western Chapter, Britton Fund, USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station, and the UC system.

Posted on Wednesday, April 18, 2018 at 11:35 AM
Tags: climate change (72), Earth Day (1), Janet Hartin (1), trees (1)
Focus Area Tags: Environment

Monthly news round up: February 2018

In video game Foldit's Aflatoxin Challenge, players try to fold a protein into a shape that will break down the aflatoxin molecule into something harmless.

Scientists' Newest Tool To Fight Agricultural Toxin: A Video Game

(KVPR) Kerry Klein, Feb. 28

It wasn't long after the invention of the internet that scientists discovered the potential for using computing power as a citizen science tool. One of the earliest examples was a computer program developed in the 1990s that allowed users to search for life on other planets. Now a new collaboration takes aim at something a little closer to home: An intersection between citizen science, health, and agriculture, with implications right here in the San Joaquin Valley.

…Aflatoxin is the most potent natural carcinogen known. It's caused by a fungus that can grow in crops like pistachios, peanuts and cotton. A single outbreak in corn in Kenya killed 125 people in 2004, while long-term exposure is responsible for tens of thousands of liver cancer diagnoses each year.

That's why Themis Michailides is grinding up pistachios to test for aflatoxin. He's studied plant diseases for almost 30 years with the University of California Research Extension in Parlier. “My emphasis is how we can manage it, how can we reduce it so that these crops are free from aflatoxin,” he says.

http://kvpr.org/post/scientists-newest-tool-fight-agricultural-toxin-video-game

New study — Climate change threatens major crops in California

(Digital Journal) Karen Graham, Feb. 28

Over the last 10-years, farmers in California have experienced the symptoms of climate change — less winter chill, crops blooming earlier, more heat waves and years of drought when the state baked in record temperatures.
… The study, led by researchers from the University of California Merced and Davis also leaves us with a dire prediction — the increased rate and scale of climate change is “beyond the realm of experience” for the agricultural community, and unless farmers take urgent measures, the consequences could threaten national food security.

…By the end of this century, over 90 percent of the Central Valley will be unsuitable for agriculture. “One under-appreciated aspect of California's climate is how important our temperature envelope is to California's agricultural sector. The right temperatures at the right times are absolutely crucial,” said Faith Kearns, a scientist with the California Institute for Water Resources who was part of the team.

http://www.digitaljournal.com/news/environment/new-study-climate-change-threatens-major-crops-in-california/article/516114#ixzz58Rs9X0Cs

Climate change could decimate California's major crops, and that should concern everyone

(Think Progress) Natasha Geiling, Feb. 28

A new study, published on Tuesday in the journal Agronomy, contains a dire warning for anyone in the United States who eats: By the end of the century, climate change could wreak havoc on California's major crops, prompting a sharp downturn in the state's ability to produce things like almonds, wheat, and corn.

… The study, led by researchers from University of California Merced and Davis, looked at both past trends and potential future impacts of climate change on temperature, snowpack, and extreme events like drought, heatwaves, and flooding. Researchers then looked at how those projected changes would impact some of California's most important crops, including fruits and nuts.

https://thinkprogress.org/climate-change-california-crops-decline-study-d1cef69f0520/

Researchers Say Climate Change Could Significantly Reduce Crop Yields By 2050

(Capital Public Radio) Ezra Romero, Feb. 27

Climate change could decrease the yield of some crops in the state by up to 40 percent by 2050. That's a big deal for farmers growing more than 400 commodities.

Tapan Pathak, a UC Cooperative Extension specialist based in Merced, and his research team analyzed more than 90 studies on climate change and discovered that warming temperatures may alter where crops grow across California. Their findings were published in Agronomy Journal.

“In order to make California agriculture more sustainable we have to act now,” Pathak said.

http://www.capradio.org/articles/2018/02/27/researchers-say-climate-change-could-significantly-reduce-crop-yields-by-2050

California agriculture faces serious threats from climate change, study finds

(Desert Sun) Ian James, Feb. 27

Over the past decade, California farmers have been seeing symptoms of climate change in their fields and orchards: less winter chill, crops blooming earlier, more heat waves and years of drought when the state baked in record temperatures.

Scientists say California agriculture will face much bigger and more severe impacts due to climate change in the coming decades. In a new study, University of California researchers said those effects range from lower crop yields to warming that will render parts of the state unsuitable for the crops that are grown there today. 

…“One under-appreciated aspect of California's climate is how important our temperature envelope is to California's agricultural sector. The right temperatures at the right times are absolutely crucial,” said Faith Kearns, a scientist with the California Institute for Water Resources who was part of the team. “For example, warm weather in January and February can reduce almond yields, but warm summers can reduce peach yields. So, there really is no-one-size-fits-all adaptation approach.”

https://www.desertsun.com/story/news/environment/2018/02/27/california-agriculture-faces-serious-threats-climate-change-study-finds/377289002/

Study: Climate Change Threatens Major Crops in California

(KQED) Amel Ahmad, Feb. 27

California currently provides two-thirds of the country's fruits and nuts, but according to a new study published Tuesday, by the end of the century California's climate will no longer be able to support the state's major crops, including orchards.

…The study, led by researchers from the University of California, Merced and Davis campuses, looked at past and current trends in California's climate and examined what impact record low levels of snowpack, and extreme events such as drought will have on crop yields over time.

https://ww2.kqed.org/science/2018/02/27/study-climate-change-will-wipe-out-major-crops-in-california/  

Report: Climate Change Could Ruin California's Farming Industry

(Courthouse News Service) Nick Cahill, Feb. 27

In a study released Monday, University of California researchers predict major damage to many of California's over 400 different crops due to climate change, and outline ways for the state and farmers to brace for future climate challenges.

…Peter Gleick, founder of the Pacific Institute and one the country's foremost water experts, applauded the study sponsored by the University of California Office of the President.

“This may be the most important article on this subject I've ever seen, and I've seen them all,” Gleick tweeted.

https://www.courthousenews.com/report-climate-change-could-ruin-californias-farming-industry/

Grain Diseases Must Be Closely Monitored

(California Ag Today) Patrick Cavanaugh, Feb. 27

Mark Lundy is a UC Cooperative Extension Specialist in grain cropping systems at UC Davis. Lundy runs trials on grain crops because California is such a diverse environment and there are different conditions from year to year so it's important to be consistent in measuring yield and crop quality, grain diseases, and agronomic traits on small grains.

Lundy's work is predominantly on California wheat, but there are many trials on barley.

“Improved varieties have been the mainstay of my work,” Lundy said. “I came at it from a water and nitrogen management background, and one of our goals is trying to disentangle the environment that you can't control from the environment that you can control. But this is the second year where we have some of those gradients in there so we are trying to maintain the attributes we have, while also trying to add some value."

https://californiaagtoday.com/grain-diseases-must-closely-monitored/

Free healthy living workshops at the Placerville Library

Mountain Democrat, Feb. 27

The Placerville Library is teaming up with the University of California Cooperative Extension's UC CalFresh Nutrition Education Program to offer free workshops promoting health and reducing risk for obesity and major chronic diseases. Visit the library for these hands-on “Eat Healthy Be Active” classes with free cooking demonstrations Fridays in March from 2-3 p.m. at the Placerville Library, 345 Fair Lane.

https://www.mtdemocrat.com/prospecting/free-healthy-living-workshops-at-the-placerville-library/

Green thumbs not required (UC Master Gardeners on the cover of magazine)

(Central Valley Magazine) Cyndee Fontana-Ott

…Locally there are plenty of resources for the budding home gardener. One of the most valuable is the UCCE Master Gardeners of Fresno County.

Master Gardeners are specially trained and certified and also must meet requirements for volunteer hours and continuing education.

https://issuu.com/fresnobee/docs/cvmarchlpd

Website helps California poultry producers monitor avian flu risk

(Feedstuffs) UCANR news release, Feb 23

To reduce potential exposure to avian influenza, a new interactive website is now available to help California poultry producers, backyard poultry enthusiasts, regulators and risk managers assess the locations of waterfowl relative to poultry farms in the Central Valley, according to the University of California (UC) Division of Agriculture & Natural Resources.

http://www.feedstuffs.com/news/website-helps-california-poultry-producers-monitor-avian-flu-risk

Trump 'gets what you're saying': Agriculture secretary talks immigration, water and food stamps on California tour

(LA Times) Geoff Mohan, Feb. 21

"You might already know this …," Central Valley farmer Sarah Woolf offered politely, before launching on a primer on California's convoluted water system.

"No, I don't," Sonny Perdue, Trump's secretary of Agriculture, interrupted. "I need all the education I can get."

…Perdue also is a successful businessman who built a commodities trading company one grain elevator at a time.

Those are traits Trump respects in Perdue, which could give him unusual power in the Cabinet, said Dan Sumner, an agriculture and resource economist at UC Davis.

"When he says things to Trump, Trump can hear him saying, 'Be careful about your constituency. Unless you want to see Nancy Pelosi in power, you better see to the reelections in the Central Valley.' "

Put more bluntly, Trump has to ponder whether he wants Republican Congressman Devin Nunes or some Democrat leading the Russia investigation, Sumner said.

http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-perdue-california-20180221-story.html

How the federal government can get biotech regulation right

(Des Moines Register) Opinion Alison Van Eenennaam and Nina Fedoroff, Feb. 20

In his speech at the recent American Farm Bureau convention, President Trump said his administration was "streamlining regulations that have blocked cutting-edge biotechnology.”

Why is this necessary?  Paraphrasing New York Times columnist Paul Krugman's words on economic policy, it's because we're still living with “zombie” biotech regulatory policies that “should have been killed by the evidence … but keep shambling along nonetheless.” The time to end this “reign of error” is now.

Why now?  Because the evidence is in: Biotechnology methods are safe. And because new, precise gene-editing approaches are poised to revolutionize agriculture.  But for that to happen, we have to start regulating from common sense instead of fear.

https://www.desmoinesregister.com/story/opinion/columnists/2018/02/20/how-federal-government-can-get-biotech-regulation-right/354142002/

California Coffee Industry Gaining Ground

(Ag Net West) Feb. 20, 2018

The California coffee industry is steadily expanding as demand for the domestically grown product shows significant promise.  Last year, Frinj Coffee cooperative sold their entire crop to Blue Bottle Coffee who paid $60 per pound for the beans.  Cups of the coffee cost $18 each, and sold out in less than two weeks in the cafes it was being offered in.

Most American coffee production has historically taken place in Hawaii.  Farmers in California have started taking interest in producing high-value coffee beans after realizing the sub-tropical plants have the potential to thrive in the state.  According to the University of California's Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, there are currently 30 farms with over 30,000 coffee trees planted.  There are also more than 24 farms forecasted to start growing coffee in 2018.

http://agnetwest.com/california-coffee-industry-gaining-ground/

Eureka! California-Grown Coffee Is Becoming The State's Next Gold Mine

(NPR The Salt) Jodi Helmer, Feb. 16

When Mark Gaskell moved to California after working in coffee-growing regions in Central America, he noticed coffee plants growing in gardens and wondered if large-scale production was an option.

In 2001, Gaskell, farm advisor for the University of California Cooperative Extension, established transplants and discovered that the sub-tropical plants could thrive in the Golden State. He recruited Jay Ruskey of Good Land Organics to help with trials, hoping coffee could be a valuable niche crop to help sustain small farms.

…Local farmers embraced the idea of California coffee and started planting their own crops. The burgeoning state industry now boasts 30 farms growing more than 30,000 coffee trees, according to the University of California's Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

At least two dozen more farms are expected to begin growing coffee in 2018.

Although coffee farms are scattered throughout California, the biggest concentrations are in Santa Barbara and San Diego counties. Most of the farms are fewer than five years old and their beans are just starting to mature. As that happens, Gaskell expects production to double year over year.

"The California coffee industry is growing very quickly," he says.

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/02/16/585409126/eureka-california-grown-coffee-is-becoming-the-states-next-gold-mine 

Lab-Grown Meat Is Coming, Whether You Like It or Not

(Wired) Matt Simon, Feb. 16

Clean meat companies claim the process will be more efficient because you're only growing the bits you need to feed people—no guts or eyeballs or brains. And without the need for massive livestock operations, you could theoretically spread out your manufacturing facilities, cutting down on transportation emissions. But few studies have looked rigorously at the environmental pros and cons of in vitro meat production.

What scientists really need is something called a life cycle analysis. It would tabulate all the things that go into making food, like water, land, and greenhouse gas emissions. “It's very easy to say, for example, ‘Well I don't know, in vitro doesn't use as much land as beef cattle production,'” says Alison Van Eenennaam, an animal geneticist at the University of California, Davis. “OK, but that's just one component of a life cycle analysis.”

https://www.wired.com/story/lab-grown-meat/

When to spray fruit trees? It depends

(Sac Bee) Debbie Arrington, Feb. 16

Q: I had a helluva time with thrips in 2017, but I also did not know what they were at the time and did not spray for them either – other than my typical two- to three-time dormant spray with copper and horticultural oil. I live in San Jose and have around 35 fruit trees in my backyard orchard: cherries, peaches, apricots, pluots, apples, pears, guavas, pomegranates and citrus. I covered my backyard with weed fabric last year and it has a 3- to 4-inch layer of mulch, so virtually all of the weeds have been kept at bay (knock on wood). I can already see that several peach trees have swollen buds and bloom should start in a week or less.

“Thrips usually aren't a big problem except for nectarines, on which they cause russetting,” said Chuck Ingels, farm adviser for the UC Cooperative Extension in Sacramento County.

http://www.sacbee.com/entertainment/living/home-garden/garden-detective/article200554394.html

Rhodes grass: Forage option in California's low desert?

(Western Farm Press) Cary Blake, Feb 15

After two-and-a-half years of a University of California experimental forage field trial in the state's southernmost county, Imperial, initial trial results suggests that Rhodes grass (Rhodes gayana) could be a solid new perennial forage crop for low desert growers.

“In the trial, Rhodes grass has been highly adaptable, easy to establish, highly drought tolerant, no pest and disease issues so far, and produced large amounts of biomass with high nutrient value as a hay for livestock feed,” said Dr. Oli Bachie, director, UC Cooperative Extension (UCCE) Imperial County at Holtville.

http://www.westernfarmpress.com/cover-crops/rhodes-grass-forage-option-california-s-low-desert

Sec. Sonny Perdue visits World Ag Expo 

(Hanford Sentinel) Chelsea Shannon, Feb. 14

Another issue was raised by Glenda Humiston, vice president of Agriculture & Natural Resources at the University of California Office of the President.

She said the current definition of rural prevents enough funding to go toward agriculture research in California. Humiston said rural counties have no cities with populations greater than 50,000, disqualifying many counties.

“If a county has one town that has 50,000 population in it, the entire county is labeled metropolitan for purposes of allocating funding,” Humiston said.

Perdue said that there is work being done to fix the definition of rural amongst different departments in the government.

http://hanfordsentinel.com/news/local/sec-sonny-perdue-visits-world-ag-expo/article_88f34d1c-fe29-529e-a9e4-7825ec59e8f5.html

World Ag Expo: Secretary Perdue takes pulse of agriculture community 

(Porterville Recorder) By Matthew Sarr, Feb. 14

United States Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue was in attendance at the International Agri-Center to participate in a town hall meeting, where he offered his thoughts on California agriculture and attendees expressed their concerns and questions.

…A representative from the UC Cooperative Extension expressed the importance of federal funding for agricultural research, as well a need to make better distinctions between rural and metropolitan counties for the purposes of allocating those dollars, which drew a round of applause from the audience.

http://www.recorderonline.com/news/world-ag-expo-secretary-perdue-takes-pulse-of-agriculture-community/article_290ba03c-1153-11e8-b1f8-bf8ccf8e0f22.html

Sonny Perdue hears from California growers at World Ag Expo

(Western Farm Press) Todd Fitchett, Feb. 14

While trade, labor and regulatory issues may top the list of agricultural policy issues Perdue faces in Washington D.C., Glenda Humiston, Vice President of the University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Division of the state's Land Grant university, stressed the importance of adequate research funding and federal definitions of rural versus urban, which she said is having detrimental impacts across California on important program funding.

Humiston said that while UCANR has a “proud tradition of research in California,” the university is plagued by reduced budgets at the same time the state is plagued by a new invasive pest every several weeks. She said for the university to stay ahead of these issues and to help growers in these and many other areas, additional funding is vital.

The United States is losing the battle over agricultural research with China, which spends more in that sector, Humiston says. She continues to trumpet the idea of greater broadband access to rural areas of the state as new agriculture will demand internet upgrades for technology like sensors and driverless spray rigs.”

 http://www.westernfarmpress.com/usda/sonny-perdue-hears-california-growers-world-ag-expo

It's weather, not climate change, Governor Brown

(Canada Free Press) Robert W. Endlich, Feb. 14

2017 featured incredibly intense, damaging wildfires in California: first the Wine Country fires of October, and later the massive Thomas Fire in December. Each destroyed hundreds of homes, the latter in many of the affluent suburbs and enclaves northwest of Los Angeles and Hollywood.

The Thomas Fire is the largest in modern California history, with over 1000 structures destroyed. The fires and subsequent mudslides killed over 60 people and left many others severely burned or injured.

… This is exactly the situation described in a recent article that mentions October as the worst month for wildfires and quotes University of California fire expert Max Moritz, who says “By the time you get to this season, right when you're starting to anticipate some rain, it's actually the most fire prone part of the year.” Power line and other management failures increase the likelihood of disaster.

https://canadafreepress.com/article/its-weather-not-climate-change-governor-brown

The East Bay's Future Climate Will Be Both Dry and Wet

(East Bay Express) Robert Gammon, Feb. 14

Typically, we think of dry and wet climates as being distinct. But the East Bay of the future may experience devastating aspects of both.

Many climate scientists expect California to increasingly experience intense periods of drought this century, much like the bone-dry winters from 2011 through 2015. Researchers also predict that Mediterranean climates — like that of the Bay Area — will become drier overall as global temperatures rise.

…"By 2050, it's clearly going to be drier and warmer," said Bill Stewart, a forestry specialist at UC Berkeley's Department of Environmental, Science and Policy Management. Stewart said that during the coming decades, the East Bay's landscape is expected to add more shrubland and lose forest, shifting "to vegetation that does better in drier terrain."

https://www.eastbayexpress.com/oakland/the-east-bays-future-climate-will-be-both-dry-and-wet/Content?oid=13262912

Lodi Honors Longtime Farm Advisor
(Wines & Vines) Ted Rieger, Feb. 13

Lodi Grape Day has long been one of the region's most informative and well attended educational meetings for grape growers. At the 66th annual Grape Day held Feb. 6, Lodi's grape and wine industry honored the man who helped organize the educational sessions for nearly half the Grape Days held to date. Paul Verdegaal, University of California Cooperative Extension (UCCE) San Joaquin County farm advisor for the past 31 years, officially retired Jan. 1. His longtime service was recognized as this year's Grape Day keynote speaker.  

https://www.winesandvines.com/news/article/195690/Lodi-Honors-Longtime-Farm-Advisor

2018's Healthiest & Unhealthiest Cities in America

(Wallet Hub) Richie Bernardo, Feb. 12

What are the most important factors to consider in choosing a city that is good for your health?

Lorrene Ritchie:

Location, of course, matters. But it is important to think about not just the city, but the neighborhood – both near your home and your work (to the extent one has control over this), as these are the locations most people spend most of their time. And it is important to know what would help you make healthy choices, as this can differ between individuals. For example, a nearby tennis court is only helpful if you like to play tennis. A farmers' market nearby only works if that's the sort of market you would shop at.

https://wallethub.com/edu/healthiest-cities/31072/#lorrene-ritchie   

Flash bloom: Warm weather has all almond varieties blooming at the same time

(Chico Enterprise-Record) Steve Schoonover, Feb. 9

The warm weather we've been enjoying has produced what's called a “flash bloom” in almonds, with all the varieties blooming at once.

…The idea is to get what Butte County UC Cooperative Extension Farm Advisor Luke Milliron called “bloom overlap.”

…Glenn County Farm Advisor Dani Lightle said the weather has been good for bee flight, with warm temperatures and little wind.

“But with the crush of flowers all at the same time, can they get to them all?” she asked.

http://www.chicoer.com/article/NA/20180209/NEWS/180209724

Farmers Can Put Themselves On The Map If They Complete The U.S. Agriculture Census By February 5

(Capital Public Radio) Julia Mitric, Feb. 5

…The once-every-five-year census also paints a picture that can help the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, which leads beginning farmer and rancher training programs. 

Jennifer Sowerwine works on these programs through the UC Cooperative Extension at UC Berkeley.

"The Ag Census data is helpful in my work because we can see changes over time in the demographic profile of farmers [race, gender and size] that can help inform the type of training we offer," explains Sowerwine.

http://www.capradio.org/articles/2018/01/29/farmers-can-put-themselves-on-the-map-if-they-complete-the-us-agriculture-census-by-february-5

Posted on Wednesday, February 28, 2018 at 10:19 PM
Tags: Agritourism (1), Climate Change (72), drought (6), Poultry (1)

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